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What is a Living Sacrifice?

September 9, 2013 by  
Filed under Fr. Bartunek, Sacrifice

Dear Father John, what exactly is a living sacrifice? I've been asking some of my Protestant Christian friends and no one can give me an answer that I am satisfied with. My dissatisfaction stems from the fact that I keep receiving conflicting answers. Thank you and y'all are in my prayers.

Let’s start with the key biblical passage that made this phrase, “living sacrifice,” famous. It’s from St. Paul’s Letter to the Romans. He is writing about God’s great mercy, by which we have been saved from our sins. He points out that the Old Covenant focused on attaining salvation (a right relationship with God) through the “works” of the law. Among those works, ritual sacrifices were front and center. Those rituals involved taking some good thing(s) upon which the People of Israel were dependent for their existence – mainly the grain from their harvests or animals from their flocks – and offering it to God.

The Purpose of Ritual Sacrifices
According to the ritual, those offerings, or at least parts of them, had to be destroyed. By destroying them – burning them on the altar, for example, or giving them to the priests, who for post on living sacrificehad no farms or land of their own – faithful Israelites acknowledged that those good gifts, and their own lives which depended on those gifts, belonged first and foremost to God. The sacrifices, then, were a form of worship, of gratefully and joyfully recognizing formally and regularly that the People of God were dependent on God for all things. Even pagan religions practiced some form of ritual sacrifice that took the form of worship, though their understanding of the nature of God was distorted (which is why they sometimes offered human sacrifice, or focused on the details of the ritual offerings rather than the intention in the hearts of those who were making the offering). In all cases, ritual sacrifices provided a way for believers to bring themselves, their work, and their communities into communion with God, to make them holy (the word sacrifice comes from “sacrum facere” which is Latin for “to make holy”).

A New Form of Worship
St. Paul is explaining, in his Letter to the Romans, that the old way of making things holy, through ritual sacrifice, in which good things are destroyed – removed from human use – in order to honor God and acknowledge our dependence on him, is over. Those old sacrifices were only shadows of the one true sacrifice, Jesus’ self-offering on the Cross. And it was Christ’s sacrifice that makes us holy, not because of anything we can do or earn, but simply because God in his mercy has offered us this grace. In the New Covenant, then, the role of sacrifice has changed. Christ’s sacrifice is now the source of our entering into a right relationship with God, not our sacrifices.

In Chapter 12, verses 1 and 2, of the Letter to the Romans, St. Paul draws a consequence from this new and definitive arrangement – he makes a “therefore” statement:

I urge you therefore, brothers, by the mercies of God, to offer your bodies as a living sacrifice, holy and pleasing to God, your spiritual worship. Do not conform yourselves to this age but be transformed by the renewal of your mind, that you may discern what is the will of God, what is good and pleasing and perfect.

Instead of offering ritual sacrifices of grain and bulls in order to gain God’s favors, which is what happened in the Old Covenant, Christians are now called to a different mode of worship, a spiritual mode of worship. We are called not to earn God’s mercy by our offerings, but to express our gratitude and our love for God’s mercy – which we have already received through our faith in Christ’s definitive sacrifice on Calvary – through our new way of life. In Christ, we have received the grace to live no longer centered on ourselves, but centered on Christ and his message and his wisdom and his love. This new way of life, this new life in Christ (the life of the Beatitudes, the life exemplified by the saints) has become our way of deepening our union with God and worshipping him. Instead of the ritual sacrifices of the Old Covenant, we are now engaged in the great adventure of making our entire lives into a living sacrifice, an entire life “made holy” in Christ to give glory to God and to lead us to the fulfillment of everlasting union with him in heaven.

A Better Sacrifice
So you see, a living sacrifice is a different mode of worshipping God, a mode made possible only because in Christ we have been given grace, an interior renewal, that gradually transforms our minds, hearts, and emotions, from within. And this is much more pleasing to God than the old ritual sacrifices, because, in the end, he is interested not just in our external actions (ritual sacrifices), but in our friendship. A Christian, making a sincere, decent, and consistent effort to live the new life in Christ, is offering a living sacrifice each moment of every day, worshipping God in everything they do.

A lot more could be said. In fact, a whole literature on the nature of sacrifice has developed among theologians and anthropologists over the last few decades. But I think this should be enough to give you some clear reference points. I hope it helps. God bless you!


Art: Detail of Tel Be'er Sheva, Reconstruction of an ancient Israelite horned altar (based upon remnants of the original one), photographed by Daniel Baránek, 27 June 2009 own work, CCA-SA 3.0 Unported, Wikimedia Commons.

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About Fr. John Bartunek, LC

Fr. John Bartunek, LC, S.Th.D, received his BA in History from Stanford University in 1990. He comes from an evangelical Christian background and became a member of the Catholic Church in 1991. After college, he worked as a high school history teacher, drama director, and baseball coach. He then spent a year as a professional actor in Chicago before entering the religious Congregation of the Legionaries of Christ in 1993. He was ordained a Catholic priest in 2003 and earned his doctorate in moral theology in 2010. He provided spiritual support on the set of Mel Gibson’s "The Passion of the Christ" while researching the 2005 Catholic best seller, "Inside the Passion"--the only authorized, behind-the-scene explanation of the film. Fr. John has contributed news commentary regarding religious issues on NBC, CNN, Fox, and the BBC. He also served as the English-language press liaison for the Vatican’s 2005 Synod of Bishops on the Eucharist. His most widely known book is called: "The Better Part: A Christ-Centered Resource for Personal Prayer". His most recent books are "Spring Meditations", "Seeking First the Kingdom: 30 Meditations on How to Love God with All Your Heart, Soul, Mind and Strength", and "Answers: Catholic Advice for Your Spiritual Questions". Fr. John currently splits his time between Michigan (where he continues his writing apostolate and serves as a confessor and spiritual director at the Queen of the Family Retreat Center) and Rome, where he teaches theology at Regina Apostolorum. His online, do-it-yourself retreats are available at, and he answers questions about the spiritual life at

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  • patricia

    This Father I what I needed to hear my prayer today was full of questions agitation and a sense of lacking in hope but even in our misery and weakness and for me to not get a descent night of sleep and wake up sick that this too can be a living sacrifice although today I feel more dead than alive my prayer dull with little focus. I feel better knowing somehow Jesus God will accept such a poor living sacrifice as mine.

    • RobinJeanne

      Sorry to hear of your battle. This is a good example, I think of what they mean when the older generation says “offer it up”. Maybe it will at lease bring spiritual peace knowing it’s not wasted, joining your sufferings with Christ on the cross “to make holy” not just you but other souls you pray for (wayward family, souls in purgator, etc.). If I’m incorrect, I hope someone will correct me. God bless you and give you the grace to perservere.

      • LizEst

        Of our own, our efforts have only temporal value. However, when we join them to Christ, they have infinite value because of His infinite value and the value of His saving work.

        Our morning offering should give us great peace here. When we offer everything to God, from the start of the day, everything has value. The challenge is to consciously offer everything throughout the day. That adds to our morning offering because of the intentionality we put into our work and our prayers.

        • Jeanette

          That, indeed, is a challenge to remember to offer everything throughout the day. After my morning offering, I try to remember to say throughout the day: “For You Jesus, in everything I do.” It is very simple and quick to say.

          • patricia

            All For Jesus and All For Souls!!!

        • patricia

          yes my morning offering given to God and Mary but I am half asleep. my spiritual director told me to call on my guardian angle in times such as these, and remember Christ is present. Please pray for my spiritual director he is on retreat this week.

          • LizEst

            I will certainly pray. God bless you, Patricia. Feel better!

          • patricia

            Thank You I will see you in class.

      • patricia

        I do offer it union with Christ on the cross except when I know I have caused my own cross. mornings are always difficult but to go to mass in the afternoon is about a good twenty miles away. anyway I get a lot done even though I do feel like a sleep walking through my day. All For Jesus and All For Souls!!! After Mass I always feel better who wouldn’t I truly do need my daily bread, we all do.

    • RobinJeanne

      I’m not sure if this is out of line, but I know the monitor will handle it if it is… this happens to Terry Modice’s reflection today I felt went with what you expressed in your situation. Maybe it too will help. It’s called Healing and suffering for God’s kingdom

    • Jeanette

      I’m still praying for your healing Patricia. May God bless you.

  • Cynthia

    Thank you Father Bartenek for a beautiful description of what it means to offer your life to God as a “living sacrifice”. I have been including Romans 12:1-2 in my morning offering for about a year now. It’s had a profound impact on my spiritual journey as the Holy Spirit has expanded it’s meaning and impact throughout each day with him. I pray in part, ” Jesus, by your grace, I present my body as a living sacrifice, holy and pleasing to you, which is my spiritual act of worship. And I pray that I may not be conformed to to this world, but be transformed by the renewing of my mind; that I may prove what the will of God is, that which is good and pleasing and perfect.” then I pray, “This is my body, Lord, given up for you” and I end with “Suscipe me, Domine!” asking the Lord to take me, to lift me up, to receive me unto Himself. This offering has been powerfully transforming.

    • LizEst

      Beautiful! Thanks for sharing this, Cynthia. God bless you!

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