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Is Sunday Mass still an obligation? – Part I of II

January 17, 2011 by  
Filed under Church Teaching, Eucharist/Mass, Fr. Bartunek, Sacraments

Dear Father John, the Catechism of the Catholic Church teaches that it is a grave sin to miss our Sunday Obligation unless excused for a serious reason (CCC 2181). Our parish priests and our RCIA team have always taught the same. However, recently I heard someone from the diocese say that it is never a mortal sin to miss Sunday's Mass; that the Bishops of the United States have relaxed the old rule and if you miss Sunday's Mass you can simply choose another daily Mass for your “Sabbath”. Could you clarify the Sunday Obligation, please?

Well, I’ll try. But first, a disclaimer.  It is easy to misunderstand what people say. So the “someone from the diocese” may not have actually said that “it is never a mortal sin to miss Sunday’s Mass,” but they may have said something that was easily interpreted like that. So, since I wasn't present and this may not be an exact quotation (or intention) of the person in question, I will simply try to reflect a bit on the Sunday obligation itself. Wait – one more disclaimer. We should remember that one of the great advantages of being a Catholic is that we can know when our pastor or priest (or even bishop) is wrong: all we have to do is refer to the Catechism and the teaching of the Magisterium. So, even if a diocesan representative did state something confusing, we don’t really have to get too upset by it (everyone can make mistakes); we just have to go back to our sources and stick to the truth ourselves.

Part I: The Sunday Obligation

First, let’s make very clear that attending Sunday Mass (on the Sunday or on the vigil) and Mass on Holy Days of Obligation is a primary responsibility of every Catholic.

The Catechism Says…

On the web page run by the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops, we can find the relevant numbers of the Catechism:

  • (2180) The precept of the Church specifies the law of the Lord more precisely: “On Sundays and other holy days of obligation the faithful are bound to participate in the Mass.” “The precept of participating in the Mass is satisfied by assistance at a Mass which is celebrated anywhere in a Catholic rite either on the holy day or on the evening of the preceding day.”
  • (2181) The Sunday Eucharist is the foundation and confirmation of all Christian practice. For this reason the faithful are obliged to participate in the Eucharist on days of obligation, unless excused for a serious reason (for example, illness, the care of infants) or dispensed by their own pastor. Those who deliberately fail in this obligation commit a grave sin.

On that same web page, there is a report on the bishops’ Catechism committee that correlates extensively quotations from Pope John Paul II’s 1998 Apostolic Letter, Dies Domini, and various numbers from the Catechism. Reading through the correlation is a fantastic way to meditate on the reasons behind the Sunday obligation. Here is one of the paragraphs from Dies Domini that the bishops’ committee cites – it’s language is a bit technical, but still quite clear:

Even if in the earliest times it was not judged necessary to be prescriptive, the church has not ceased to confirm this obligation of conscience, which rises from the inner need felt so strongly by the Christians of the first centuries. It was only later, faced with the halfheartedness or negligence of some, that the church had to make explicit the duty to attend Sunday Mass: More often than not this was done in the form of exhortation, but at times the church had to resort to specific canonical precepts. . . . The present code reiterates this, saying that ‘on Sundays and other Holy Days of obligation, the faithful are bound to attend Mass.' This legislation has normally been understood as entailing a grave obligation: This is the teaching of the Catechism of the Catholic Church, and it is easy to understand why if we keep in mind how vital Sunday is for the Christian life (#47).


In the United States bishops’ own Adult Catechism, they emphasize the importance of Sunday Mass attendance: “God, through the Church, obliges us to make Sunday holy by participation in the Eucharist and by our being prayerfully reflective as far as possible.” (You can read the whole short chapter here.)

“Do not judge, or you too will be judged…” (Matthew 7:1)

Okay, so it’s pretty clear that the Sunday obligation is not optional, and that purposely snubbing God by skipping is indeed a grave sin. But remember, we are not called to judge our neighbors.  We have to avoid falling into self-righteous Phariseeism in the face of Catholics who do not fulfill this responsibility. Instead of condemning them, we should reach out to them, help them to understand the many reasons behind this duty, and the many positive fruits that come from fulfilling it – which means we need to understand those reasons ourselves, and live Sunday well enough to begin experiencing some of those fruits.

Common Sense and Pastoral Sensitivity

John Paul II’s Apostolic Letter on this topic did address some challenges to living Sunday well that we face in post-modern times. This can cause some confusion. Basically, the issue has to do with working on Sundays. Our world no longer universally recognizes Sunday as the Lords’ Day. As a result, we Catholics, in order to keep our jobs, sometimes have to work on Sundays. Likewise, for those of us who do try to live the Lord’s Day well, some family and recreational activities that are perfectly in synch with the Sunday rest require other people to work – at restaurants or community swimming pools, for instance. How are we supposed to understand this apparent contradiction?

This challenge was one reason the Second Vatican Council authorized the vigil Mass (Mass on Saturday evening) to fulfill the Sunday obligation. And if a Catholic simply cannot make any of the Sunday Masses, he can speak with his local pastor to receive a dispensation from this obligation, and to work out alternative solutions.

As regards working on a day that is meant to be for rest, the Catechism blends common sense and pastoral sensitivity (#2187):

Sanctifying Sundays and holy days requires a common effort. Every Christian should avoid making unnecessary demands on others that would hinder them from observing the Lord's Day. Traditional activities (sport, restaurants, etc.), and social necessities (public services, etc.), require some people to work on Sundays, but everyone should still take care to set aside sufficient time for leisure. With temperance and charity the faithful will see to it that they avoid the excesses and violence sometimes associated with popular leisure activities. In spite of economic constraints, public authorities should ensure citizens a time intended for rest and divine worship. Employers have a similar obligation toward their employees.

Having seen the reality and gravity of our duty as Catholics to participate in the Sunday liturgy and live the Lord’s Day meaningfully, we are ready to reflect a bit more deeply on the reasons why this is the case, which we will, in my next post.

Yours in Christ, Father John Bartunek, LC, ThD

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About Fr. John Bartunek, LC

Fr. John Bartunek, LC, S.Th.D, received his BA in History from Stanford University in 1990. He comes from an evangelical Christian background and became a member of the Catholic Church in 1991. After college, he worked as a high school history teacher, drama director, and baseball coach. He then spent a year as a professional actor in Chicago before entering the religious Congregation of the Legionaries of Christ in 1993. He was ordained a Catholic priest in 2003 and earned his doctorate in moral theology in 2010. He provided spiritual support on the set of Mel Gibson’s "The Passion of the Christ" while researching the 2005 Catholic best seller, "Inside the Passion"--the only authorized, behind-the-scene explanation of the film. Fr. John has contributed news commentary regarding religious issues on NBC, CNN, Fox, and the BBC. He also served as the English-language press liaison for the Vatican’s 2005 Synod of Bishops on the Eucharist. His most widely known book is called: "The Better Part: A Christ-Centered Resource for Personal Prayer". His most recent books are "Spring Meditations", "Seeking First the Kingdom: 30 Meditations on How to Love God with All Your Heart, Soul, Mind and Strength", and "Answers: Catholic Advice for Your Spiritual Questions". Fr. John currently splits his time between Michigan (where he continues his writing apostolate and serves as a confessor and spiritual director at the Queen of the Family Retreat Center) and Rome, where he teaches theology at Regina Apostolorum. His online, do-it-yourself retreats are available at, and he answers questions about the spiritual life at

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  • larrybets

    The real travesty is that our world does not recognize Sunday ad “The Lord’s Day”. Besides Sunday being an obligation there should be a want and desire to receive our Lord not just Sunday but whenever it is possible. Well, Lord have mercy on us all.

    • Mary

      to larrybets:
      It is important to know that God rested on the Seventh Day. He looked back and admired all He created. Our day of rest should follow suit and also admired all He created for us. This is what sanctifies the Holy Day setting it apart from the rest of the week. Our hearts as you have stated, should remain open anytime Jesus wants us, and any time we need Jesus.

  • Jesusbpraised

    By the grace of God, I came to realize the great privilege it is to be a Catholic and be able to participate fully in something so wonderful and so beautiful as the Mass. I never think anymore of “having” to go to Mass…I GET to go to Mass. Part of my deeper understanding of the Mass came from reading Scott Hahn’s book “The Lamb’s Supper”. It is so very true that we get out of the Mass what we put into it. And Jesus will fill you up with His joy!

  • defiant12314

    Personally I don’t know how people get by when they only go to Mass on Sunday (yeah I know work commitments etc but the 07:30 weekday Mass at the Cathedral is packed); if it wasn’t for Daily Mass I don’t know where I’d be

    • Jesusbpraised

      I agree. I am so happy that my life revolves around the liturgical calendar and the Mass.

  • CMT

    Perfect {God’s} timing. My 12 year old son was just asking me all sorts of questions about the right way to observe the Lord’s day, and this post helped us both. Thank you.

  • Guest

    With all due respect and humility, Father John, I am shocked a professed Catholic can doubt the centrality of our Faith of attending the Holy Mass. Not just on Sundays, which is an obligation and a mortal sin to miss without a valid reason, but for those whose state of life allows, attending daily Holy Mass is such a faith-building and Grace-filled moment where we receive Jesus in His Body, Blood, Sould and Divinity.

    Sacrifice of Our

    Lord to His Father for our salvation and reach the apex of the Holy Mass when Jesus w whewhen Jesu

  • Guest

    The entire Catholic Faith is centered on this Sacrament. Adopting the now popular stance of picking and choosing what to believe and not to believe in the Catholic Faith, challenging the Authority of the Church Teachings, the Doctrine, the Tradition, the Magisterium and the Power of the Keys of the Successor of Peter to govern the Mystical Body of Christ, are worrying and dangerous manifestations of mankind trying to deny God

  • Maria

    I am still confused. I tell my children it is a mortal sin to purposely miss Sunday mass. Is a grave sin the same as a mortal sin? Am I wrong?

    • Dear Maria – the best thing is to open the Catechism and review section 1854 and beyond. This will be of great benefit to your understanding.

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